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奥密克戎与德尔塔变异毒株有哪些区别

奥密克戎与德尔塔变异毒株有哪些区别

Andrew Marquardt 2022年01月12日
我们对奥密克戎变异毒株仍然缺乏了解。

新年伊始,随着奥密克戎变异毒株的传播,美国的新冠感染率和住院率持续上升,目前奥密克戎变异毒株已经取代德尔塔变异毒株成为美国新冠疫情的主要病毒株。

1月5日,白宫官员表示,奥密克戎变异毒株导致的新冠疫情高峰尚未到来,并警告未来几周将“充满挑战性”。

虽然我们对奥密克戎变异毒株仍然有许多信息不得而知,但有专家总结了它与之前出现的变异毒株的区别。

奥密克戎患者有哪些症状?

自新冠疫情爆发以来,新冠肺炎的症状已经有充分证据。美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)表示,从轻症到重症新冠患者出现了各种症状,其中最常见的症状包括咳嗽、流涕、发烧、头痛和疲劳等。

在2021年9月德尔塔变异毒株最严重的时期,患者的症状与美国爆发的初始新冠病毒株感染者的症状类似。

自2021年12月奥密克戎变异毒株席卷美国以来,在患者和健康专家中广泛流传这种变异毒株会产生一些不同症状的传闻。

健康科学研究公司Zoe在英国统计的数据显示,与之前的病毒株相比,发烧和咳嗽等症状在奥密克戎患者中并不常见,奥密克戎患者更常见的症状包括流涕、打喷嚏、头痛和疲劳等。

据妙佑医疗国际(Mayo Clinic)表示,最近,一名医生表示他似乎发现部分奥密克戎患者出现了一种新症状:盗汗。患者会反复严重出汗,可能会湿透衣服和床单。

位于美国华盛顿州埃德蒙兹的一名急诊室医生、Vituity公司的首席医疗官格雷格·米勒对《财富》杂志表示,与德尔塔和之前出现的其他病毒株的感染者相比,奥密克戎患者“失去嗅觉的可能性较低”。Vituity是一家由医生创建的医疗保健公司,专门从事急性护理创新。

在最早发现奥密克戎变异毒株的南非进行的早期研究发现,总体上而言,奥密克戎患者的症状严重程度低于德尔塔和之前出现的其他病毒株。米勒表示,这可能是因为“有证据证明奥密克戎变异毒株不太可能入侵肺部组织”,因此“肺炎症状较轻,病情并不严重”。

美国知名传染病专家安东尼·福奇博士在1月5日引用了近期奥密克戎对老鼠和仓鼠的影响等相关研究,进一步证实了这种观点。福奇在白宫新闻发布会上称:“研究证明,奥密克戎变异毒株在上呼吸道和支气管中活跃增殖,但在肺部增殖较慢。”

然而,世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)的临床管理负责人珍妮特·迪亚兹于上周表示,虽然奥密克戎变异毒株的严重程度较低,但不应该将其视为一种“温和的”变异株。

接触之后多久会出现症状?

虽然有关奥密克戎变异毒株仍然有许多信息不得而知,但随着感染者越来越多,专家们开始对它有更多的了解。一个重要的观察结果是,接触这种变异株的患者似乎会更快出现症状。

德尔塔变异毒株在一般人群中的潜伏期约为四天,原始变异毒株的潜伏期约为五天。

米勒说:“感染德尔塔变异毒株的患者可能在感染后四至五天才会出现症状,但奥密克戎患者可能在感染后两至三天就出现症状。”

最近几周有关奥密克戎变异毒株的多项研究显示,患者从感染到出现症状之间的时间约为三天。

奥密克戎的传染力多强?

美国疾病控制与预防中心的报告显示,由于奥密克戎变异毒株与之前出现的病毒株相比传染力更强,因此已经打破了美国每日新增阳性病例纪录。

哥本哈根大学(University of Copenhagen)、丹麦统计局(Statistics Denmark)和丹麦国家血清研究所(Statens Serum Institut)最近的一项研究显示,现有新冠疫苗对奥密克戎变异毒株的效果远低于预防德尔塔变异毒株的效果,这是奥密克戎变异毒株传染力更强的原因之一。

该项研究发现,奥密克戎变异毒株在已接种新冠疫苗的人群中的传染力是德尔塔变异毒株的2.7倍至3.7倍。

不过有健康专家表示,虽然奥密克戎变异毒株的传染力更强,但尽管病例数持续攀升,其导致的重症患者和住院治疗人数却少于其他病毒株。这在一定程度上是因为美国有更高比例的人口接种了新冠疫苗,面对新型变异毒株,人们做好了更充分的准备。

约翰斯·霍普金斯医院(Johns Hopkins Hospital)的肺病与重症监护医师、约翰斯·霍普金斯大学(Johns Hopkins University)的医学副教授威廉·切克利博士告诉《财富》杂志:“之所以奥密克戎变异毒株导致的住院治疗和死亡人数减少,部分原因是我们已经成功地为大部分人接种了新冠疫苗和/或加强针。”

他还表示:“对于未接种新冠疫苗的人群,奥密克戎变异毒株带来的风险与德尔塔或之前出现的其他变异毒株的风险相当。”(财富中文网)

翻译:刘进龙

审校:汪皓

新年伊始,随着奥密克戎变异毒株的传播,美国的新冠感染率和住院率持续上升,目前奥密克戎变异毒株已经取代德尔塔变异毒株成为美国新冠疫情的主要病毒株。

1月5日,白宫官员表示,奥密克戎变异毒株导致的新冠疫情高峰尚未到来,并警告未来几周将“充满挑战性”。

虽然我们对奥密克戎变异毒株仍然有许多信息不得而知,但有专家总结了它与之前出现的变异毒株的区别。

奥密克戎患者有哪些症状?

自新冠疫情爆发以来,新冠肺炎的症状已经有充分证据。美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)表示,从轻症到重症新冠患者出现了各种症状,其中最常见的症状包括咳嗽、流涕、发烧、头痛和疲劳等。

在2021年9月德尔塔变异毒株最严重的时期,患者的症状与美国爆发的初始新冠病毒株感染者的症状类似。

自2021年12月奥密克戎变异毒株席卷美国以来,在患者和健康专家中广泛流传这种变异毒株会产生一些不同症状的传闻。

健康科学研究公司Zoe在英国统计的数据显示,与之前的病毒株相比,发烧和咳嗽等症状在奥密克戎患者中并不常见,奥密克戎患者更常见的症状包括流涕、打喷嚏、头痛和疲劳等。

据妙佑医疗国际(Mayo Clinic)表示,最近,一名医生表示他似乎发现部分奥密克戎患者出现了一种新症状:盗汗。患者会反复严重出汗,可能会湿透衣服和床单。

位于美国华盛顿州埃德蒙兹的一名急诊室医生、Vituity公司的首席医疗官格雷格·米勒对《财富》杂志表示,与德尔塔和之前出现的其他病毒株的感染者相比,奥密克戎患者“失去嗅觉的可能性较低”。Vituity是一家由医生创建的医疗保健公司,专门从事急性护理创新。

在最早发现奥密克戎变异毒株的南非进行的早期研究发现,总体上而言,奥密克戎患者的症状严重程度低于德尔塔和之前出现的其他病毒株。米勒表示,这可能是因为“有证据证明奥密克戎变异毒株不太可能入侵肺部组织”,因此“肺炎症状较轻,病情并不严重”。

美国知名传染病专家安东尼·福奇博士在1月5日引用了近期奥密克戎对老鼠和仓鼠的影响等相关研究,进一步证实了这种观点。福奇在白宫新闻发布会上称:“研究证明,奥密克戎变异毒株在上呼吸道和支气管中活跃增殖,但在肺部增殖较慢。”

然而,世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)的临床管理负责人珍妮特·迪亚兹于上周表示,虽然奥密克戎变异毒株的严重程度较低,但不应该将其视为一种“温和的”变异株。

接触之后多久会出现症状?

虽然有关奥密克戎变异毒株仍然有许多信息不得而知,但随着感染者越来越多,专家们开始对它有更多的了解。一个重要的观察结果是,接触这种变异株的患者似乎会更快出现症状。

德尔塔变异毒株在一般人群中的潜伏期约为四天,原始变异毒株的潜伏期约为五天。

米勒说:“感染德尔塔变异毒株的患者可能在感染后四至五天才会出现症状,但奥密克戎患者可能在感染后两至三天就出现症状。”

最近几周有关奥密克戎变异毒株的多项研究显示,患者从感染到出现症状之间的时间约为三天。

奥密克戎的传染力多强?

美国疾病控制与预防中心的报告显示,由于奥密克戎变异毒株与之前出现的病毒株相比传染力更强,因此已经打破了美国每日新增阳性病例纪录。

哥本哈根大学(University of Copenhagen)、丹麦统计局(Statistics Denmark)和丹麦国家血清研究所(Statens Serum Institut)最近的一项研究显示,现有新冠疫苗对奥密克戎变异毒株的效果远低于预防德尔塔变异毒株的效果,这是奥密克戎变异毒株传染力更强的原因之一。

该项研究发现,奥密克戎变异毒株在已接种新冠疫苗的人群中的传染力是德尔塔变异毒株的2.7倍至3.7倍。

不过有健康专家表示,虽然奥密克戎变异毒株的传染力更强,但尽管病例数持续攀升,其导致的重症患者和住院治疗人数却少于其他病毒株。这在一定程度上是因为美国有更高比例的人口接种了新冠疫苗,面对新型变异毒株,人们做好了更充分的准备。

约翰斯·霍普金斯医院(Johns Hopkins Hospital)的肺病与重症监护医师、约翰斯·霍普金斯大学(Johns Hopkins University)的医学副教授威廉·切克利博士告诉《财富》杂志:“之所以奥密克戎变异毒株导致的住院治疗和死亡人数减少,部分原因是我们已经成功地为大部分人接种了新冠疫苗和/或加强针。”

他还表示:“对于未接种新冠疫苗的人群,奥密克戎变异毒株带来的风险与德尔塔或之前出现的其他变异毒株的风险相当。”(财富中文网)

翻译:刘进龙

审校:汪皓

COVID-19 infections and hospitalization rates have continued to surge in the new year thanks to the Omicron variant, which has now replaced the Delta variant as the dominant strain in the U.S.

On January 5, White House officials said that Omicron’s peak is likely still ahead of us, warning that the coming weeks will be “challenging.”

And while there are still many unknowns about the Omicron variant, here’s how experts say it’s different from previous variants.

What are Omicron’s symptoms?

Signs of COVID-19 have been well documented since the pandemic began. While people with COVID-19 have reported a wide range of symptoms—ranging from mild to severe—some of the most common ones include a cough, runny nose, fever, headache, and fatigue, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Throughout Delta’s peak in September, symptoms of that variant appeared to be similar to those of the initial strain of coronavirus that hit the U.S.

Since Omicron began sweeping through the U.S. in December 2021, anecdotal reports of the variant producing some distinct symptoms have circulated among patients and health experts.

Fever and cough are less prevalent in Omicron cases versus previous strains, according to data from the U.K. conducted by Zoe, a health science research firm, and more common Omicron symptoms include runny nose, sneezing, headaches, and fatigue.

And recently, a doctor noted that anecdotally he was seeing a new symptom among some Omicron patients: night sweats, which are repeated episodes of extreme perspiration that can soak your clothes and sheets, according to the Mayo Clinic.

Unlike patients with Delta and other previous COVID strains, those with Omicron “are less likely to lose a sense of smell,” Gregg Miller, an emergency room doctor in Edmonds, Wash., and chief medical officer at Vituity, a physician-owned health care company that specializes in acute care innovation, told Fortune.

Symptoms of Omicron overall tend to be less severe than those of Delta and previous strains, according to early research from South Africa, where the variant was first detected. This may be because “there’s evidence out there that it is less likely to invade your lung tissue,” which “leads to less pneumonia and less severe disease,” Miller noted.

This was reinforced by Dr. Anthony Fauci, the nation’s top infectious disease expert, on January 5, citing recent studies of Omicron’s effect on mice and hamsters. “It was shown that the virus of Omicron proliferates very well in the upper airway and bronchi, but actually very poorly in the lungs,” Fauci said at a White House press conference.

However, World Health Organization official Janet Diaz, the agency’s clinical management lead, noted this week that although the variant may be less severe, Omicron should not be considered “mild.”

If I’m exposed, when will I get sick?

While much is still unknown about Omicron, experts are beginning to understand more about the variant as it continues to infect more people. One of the key observations is that people who are exposed to the strain appear to get sick more quickly.

Delta’s incubation period was about four days, and the original variant had an incubation period of about five days, across the general population.

“Whereas with Delta, patients maybe wouldn’t develop symptoms until four or five days after infection, with Omicron, [patients] maybe are developing symptoms within two to three days after infection,” Miller said.

Several studies of Omicron that have come out in recent weeks suggest it takes the variant about three days to develop symptoms after exposure.

How transmissible is Omicron?

The Omicron variant has managed to break records for daily positive cases in the U.S. owing to its high transmissibility compared with previous strains, according to reports from the CDC.

This is in part because Omicron is far better at circumventing the current vaccines than the Delta variant, according to a recent study conducted by researchers at the University of Copenhagen, Statistics Denmark, and Statens Serum Institut (SSI).

According to the study, Omicron was found to be 2.7 to 3.7 times as infectious as the Delta variant among vaccinated people.

But health experts say that despite its high rate of transmissibility in comparison with other strains, Omicron is causing fewer severe cases and hospitalizations even as case numbers continue to soar. This is in part because it is hitting a population that is better prepared to battle new strains, as a larger percentage of Americans are vaccinated against the coronavirus.

“Part of the reason we are seeing these reductions in hospitalizations and deaths from Omicron is we’ve already managed to get a large proportion of the population vaccinated and/or boosted,” Dr. William Checkley, a pulmonary and critical care physician at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and associate professor of medicine at Johns Hopkins University, told Fortune.

“For an unvaccinated person, the Omicron variant poses a risk just like Delta or the early variants prior to Delta,” he added.

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